Frequently Asked Questions

For convenience, we've listed some of your most common questions below. Click a question to reveal the answer...

General Questions

When new, the Integral Remote Selfie Disc is delivered with a battery protection tab that needs to be removed. If this battery tab has been removed, the battery may need replacing. 

Please click here for more information 

Integral understand that some customers may have an issue activating the AutoSave Essentials software supplied as a bonus with certain Integral Ultralite USB Flash Drives.

If your activation code does not work, you will need to enter the following number before your printed activation code:

3132-0371-

so this number would need to be followed by the code printed on your key card, for example: 3132-0371-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX

Autosave software

Memory Card
If you have a digital camera it is better to format your card in the camera. If you are using the card in a device other than a camera, we recommend the formatting of the card using a card reader, as described below:

If you are using the card in two different devices with different formats (e.g. a Digital Camera and a MP3 player) we would advise you to use two separate cards.

If formatting in the Card Reader (WARNING: FORMATTING CAN & WILL DELETE ALL DATA) please see you device or camera manual before proceeding with a format.

Be aware, by default Windows will format a memory card of 2GB or higher capacity to FAT32.

 

Formatting in a PC:

Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7

Open My Computer

Locate the drive letter of your memory card

Right-click on this drive

Select Format... (This will launch the Format Utility Window)

Under the option File System select FAT32

Click on the Start button

  • Press Start / Run
  • Type 'cmd' press the OK button
  • This will launch the MS-DOS window and prompt
  • Type format *: /fs:FAT32 or NTFS  (* represents the drive letter that windows recognises the card as)
  • Press return and follow the onscreen prompts
  • Once the routine is complete type EXIT

 

 

 

This problem is not related to any particular brand of memory card or device. It can occur when the device had been interrupted when accessing the memory card.

To avoid this problem;

  • DO NOT turn OFF the device or remove the memory card while the device is reading, writing, erasing or formatting.
  • DO NOT use the device while the batteries are low. This could result in corruption. In some cases power can run out as the memory card is being written to.
  • AVOID inserting and removing the memory card with the device switched ON.
  • To fix this problem you will need to reformat the memory card (this will destroy all data held on the card).
  • You may be able to recover images from a corrupted memory card before formatting  (see FAQ on reformatting the memory card).
  • Some cameras will not access memory cards that have been formatted in a Card Reader, so please read your camera manual before proceeding with a format.
  • When using card readers make sure the readers light is not flashing and wait a few seconds before pulling the card out of the card reader slot.

A SD card will normally work in a SDHC device (possibly with lower performance). SD cards are in the following capacities  4,8,16,32,64,128,256 512MB and 1GB, 2GB only. Currently mainly 2GB SD cards are being sold.

A SDHC card will not work in a SD device such as a camera or reader. SDHC cards are in the following capacities 4GB, 8GB, 16GB and 32GB

SDHC (Secure Digital High Capacity) was established to meet the growing demand for HD (High Definition) video and high resolution image recording now used in many SD-enabled devices.

SDHC is the same physical size and shape as standard SD but meets the new SD specification of version 2.0. If the SD card is 4GB or above, it is classed as a SDHC card. Currently, SDHC specifications allow for memory cards of a capacity between 4GB and 32GB.

SDA (SD Card Association) has also established a Speed Class rating (Class 2, 4, 6 and 10) for the standardisation of data transfer speeds (compulsory for SDHC cards):

  • CLASS 2 - a guaranteed minimum write speed of 2MB/s or higher*
  • CLASS 4 - a guaranteed minimum write speed of 4MB/s or higher*
  • CLASS 6 - a guaranteed minimum write speed of 6MB/s or higher*
  • CLASS 10 - a guaranteed minimum write speed of 10MB/s or higher*

* The minimum speed capability depends on the manufacturer of the host device and model.


All Class 2, Class 4, Class 6 and Class 10 SDHC cards are compatible with SDHC devices. Please note that if the device manual suggests a SDHC card of speed Class 4 as a minimum, the user should install a Class 4, Class 6 or Class 10 (faster) SDHC, NOT a Class 2 card as this may reduce performance of the device.

SDHC cards are not backwards compatible with standard SD devices, so they may not work in digital cameras or USB Memory Card Readers manufactured before summer 2007.

Most new devices that require the new SDHC format to operate will display the SDHC logo on the product (such as printed on the side of a camera casing) and/or user guide.

Standard SD Cards will work in SDHC compatible devices such as Memory Card Readers. In a SDHC camera a standard SD may be of limited use due to the slower read and write speed of this older technology.

The information contained in this FAQ also applies to microSD and new microSDHC plus miniSD and new miniSDHC formats. The only difference will be the physical size of the memory cards, the speed class information and compatibility issues are the same.

 

Memory cards and USB drives are NOT designed for long term storage. You should always backup your data on to another device. The data will normally stay valid for a period of up to 10 years if stored under normal conditions. The data cells inside carry a charge which can dissipate over time. The data can be refreshed; copy all data off card and then format the card or USB drive and then restore all data to extend the data for another 10 years.

 

SD cards have a write lock. This is a switch on the side of the card. The DOWN position is write protect ON  and the UP position is write protect OFF.

To use the device in a camera the position of the switch must be UP.  It is a good idea to write protect a card with important data.

 SD Card lock

"UHS-1" or more accurately "UHS-I"  stands for "Ultra High Speed" - 1 and is a speed class for SDHC and SXDC memory cards.

UHS-I has a bus interface speed of up to 104 MB/s.

An SDHC UHS-I card will work in any SDHC compatible device at lower speeds, but to take advantage of the UHS-I speed, a UHS-I compatible device is essential.

An SDXC UHS-I card will work in any SDXC compatible device at lower speeds, but to take advantage of the UHS-I speed, a UHS-I compatible device is essential.

UHS-I compatible cards and devices are normally marked with the symbol below ,"UHS-I" or "I"

A speed class is also defined.

 = Class 1 ."UHS Class 1"  

SDHC UHS-1 CLASS 1

This is the SDHC UHS-I Class 1 logo.

SDXC UHS-1 CLASS 1

This is the SDXC UHS-I Class 1 logo.

 

Integral offer a wide selection of SDHC and SDXC cards with a UHS-I U1 and UHS-I U3 interface.

UHS-II interface cards are now also available from Integral for the very latest digital cameras.

 

 

SDXC is only supported by SDXC compatible devices with the SDXC logo. 

Older devices which support SD and/or SDHC will not support SDXC.

SD Card compatiblity

SD devices are compatibe with SD Cards only.

SDHC devices are compatible with SD and SDHC Cards only. (All features may not be available with SD)

SDXC devices are compatible with SD,SDHC and SDXC Cards. (All features may not be available with SD and SDHC)

SDXC UHS-I cards can use a faster method of reading and writing called UHS-I (or UHS-1).  You will need a UHS-I compatible device to use the UHS-I feature.

Please see our SDXC Guide

CAUTION: To avoid data loss - Do not insert a SDXC card into a non-SDXC compatible device.

SDXC stands for Secure Digital eXtended Capacity

SDXC logo banner

SDXC is the latest type of memory card released in 2010 which meets the demands of FULL HD recording in terms of capacity and speed. The SDXC card has the same dimensions of a SD and SDHC card, but is ONLY compatible with SDXC devices.

SDXC cards begin at 64GB with speeds upto 104MB/s and have a roadmap to 2TB with speed up to 300MB/s

SDXC uses the exFAT file system to handle large data volumes and files sizes over 4GB. A microSDXC version is now also available.

View our SDXC memory cards

View our microSDXC memory cards

Please see our SDXC and microSDXC Guide

The default formatting for cards up to 2GB is FAT16.

In recent years, memory cards have gained more storage capacity; 4GB and above. The file format FAT32 is now commonly used in memory cards between 4GB and 32GB.

If a digital device supports only the FAT16 file system you cannot use a memory card bigger than 2GB (i.e. SDHC/microSDHC or SDXC/microSDXC memory cards).

Integral memory cards of 4GB or more such as those in the CompactFlash i-Pro, UltimaPro and SDHC ranges are only supported by FAT32 devices and must be formatted to FAT32.

It is best practice to format the card in your device before use, CAUTION formatting a card will delete all data, please see your device manual.

 

  FAT 16 (FAT) FAT 32 exFAT (FAT 64)
Maximum file size 2GB* 4GB 2TB (limited by card)
SD Card type SD SDHC, microSDHC
SDXC, microSDXC
PC Compatible OS Windows ME/2000/XP/7/8.1
Windows ME/2000/XP/7/8.1

Windows XP/Vista/7/8.1

Notes
    Windows OS may require updates, please see Table 2 below
Mac Compatible OS
Mac OS 8/9/X
Mac OS 8/9/X Mac OS X 10.6.5 and above

*Recommended limit by Microsoft for compatibility but can be up to 4GB

Table 2

Windows XP Windows Vista Windows 7 and Windows 8.1
Update to SP2 or later, then apply Microsoft update (KB955704). Use with SDXC/microSDXC compatible card reader.
Update to SP1 or later. Use with SDXC/microSDXC compatible card reader. Supported - no update required, use with SDXC/microSDXC compatible card reader.

To transfer data from a memory card to a PC - The PC has to recognise the memory card as a removable drive. It is good practice to back up data kept on a card. This can be done in a number of ways including.

  • Leaving the memory card in your device and connecting your device (usually via a USB cable) to your PC. (Please see your device manual for instructions)
  • Using a suitable memory card slot on your PC if available. Insert the memory card correctly into the appropriate slot on your PC. The memory should show as a "removable drive" in your operating system. (Please note some newer cards may not work in older slots e.g. A SDHC card will not work in a SD only slot)
  • Using an external memory card reader - Connect the memory card reader to your PC and then insert the memory card. The memory should show as a "removable drive" in your operating system. (Please note some newer cards may not work in older reader e.g. A SDHC card will not work in a SD only reader)

Make sure that your internal or external card reader and operating system are compatible with your card and format eg a SDHC card will need a SDHC reader, a SDXC card will need a SDXC reader and a operating system compatible with the exFAT format.

Once the memory card is recognised your can cut-and-paste or drag-and-drop data to and from the memory can as you would with any other drive.

Caution: No not remove the memory card or turn off the power whilst reading or writing data this could corrupt data.

Most cameras will only view images stored within a set folder structure. If you have saved the images to new folders we suggest moving the images back to within the camera's folder structure and you should be able to view them if in the correct format, but this may not be the case always as some cameras will only display images with the correct EXIF information. (This is extra data stored with the image).   

If you have modified the original image or changed the file format using Adobe Photoshop or similar the image may now not be compatible with your camera's operating system and so will not display on the camera's viewing screen (the images will be perfectly safe and fine to print).

  1. To avoid problems it is best not to save changed images back to the memory card if possible.

If a memory card is used properly it will give many years of service. You could just have a single card but if you invest in 2 or 3 your flexibility is increased greatly:

  • Use an extra card when it is impractical to download your pictures, e.g. on holiday, or on the move.
  • It is sensible to set your camera to at the highest resolution (and therefore highest quality) setting. However, higher resolution images require more space, so with only one memory card you risk running out of storage space quickly. With an extra memory card this problem is eliminated.
  • Many modern digital cameras also record high quality video. These video clips use produce a lot of data,  so a single memory card can become full very quicky.
  • Take more shots of your subject and select the best one without having to delete unwanted images straight away.
  • What if your only memory card gets lost or damaged? Precious holiday, birthday, wedding photos could be lost forever! Spread the risk by using 2 or 3 memory cards with your camera.

The memory card is not faulty. This is an occasional issue that can happen after a long period of use.

  • To fix this the card may need to be reformatted either in you device or using a compatible card reader. Remember to have downloaded and backed up any images you wish to keep before formatting, as this will destroy all data saved on the card.

If a card has become unreadable, DO NOT format the card if there is data on the card you wish to recover. If corrupt data has been written to a card, it still may be possible to retrieve data/images from the card.

In many occasions it is possible to use Data Recovery software to recover images or data from a memory card/USB Flash Drive that is no longer readable.

  • We have used "Photorescue" from Datarescue.
  • Available from: www.datarescue.com/photorescue
    This information has been given in good faith and without any liability
  • There is a demo version for download that will show you if it can recover your images before you need to purchase the software.
  • Do a web search for "photo recovery software" and see what is available
  • If you have an INTEGRAL card please contact us using our web form 

The SDHC Specifications sets a minimum guaranteed speed of 2, 4, 6 or 10MB/s to match a host device. This speed rating is commonly referred to as Class 2, Class 4, Class 6 and Class 10 speed.

This rating system was introduced to satisfy the needs of High Definition digital cameras and camcorders, where a guaranteed continuous write speed is more important than the maximum write speed which is affected by many variables.

When using a camera there are some housekeeping rules that can help speed:

  • Format the card in the host device (after backing up files)
  • Do not try and fill the card to the maximum - as the card gets full it can slow down as the controller needs to find empty space on the card
  • If your device asks for a minimum Class 4 memory card use Class 4 or above and you should not encounter any problems
  • If the device requires a Class 6 card you can use a Class 6 or a Class 10 card in most cases.
  • If the device requires a Class 10 card - You should use a Class 10 card to enjoy the best performance.

  1. Make sure the memory card is not inserted upside down, this is a very common issue with memory cards in mobile phone handsets.
  2. Try rebooting/switching on your device with the memory card already inserted.
  3. Is your device SDHC / miniSDHC / microSDHC compatible? - many cameras, PDA's, mobile phone handsets and built-in card readers (on a PC) produced before Summer 2007 will not work with SDHC memory cards.
  4. Check the switch on the side of the memory card is not set to the "lock" position. If the memory card is locked; move the switch to the unlock position and then try again
  5. If you have a SDXC card you must use a compatible SDXC device. To use on a PC you will require a compatible device and a compatible operating system. Please click here to see our guide
  6. Try another memory card

 

Most flash products on the market utilize NAND flash memory which can be sub-divided into two categories, SLC and MLC. MLC is by far is the most popular because it has a lower cost.

  • SLC (Single Level Cell) products store only one data bit per NAND flash cell which leads to faster transfer speeds, higher cell endurance and a lower power consumption. The only downside to SLC chips is the manufacturing cost per Megabyte. SLCs are intended for the high-end consumer and server market and they have approximately 10 times more endurance compared to MLCs.
  • MLC (Multi Level Cell)  store two or more bits per NAND flash cell. Storing more bits per cell achieves a higher capacity and lower manufacturing cost per Megabyte. MLC products are designed for the mainstream consumer market.

 

Universal Flash Storage (UFS) 1.0 is a new format of expandable storage developed by Samsung that offers data transfer speeds more than five times faster than current UHS-I microSD cards. UFS 1.0 cards are similar in size to the microSD format but will offer read speeds of up to 530 MB/s and write speeds of up to 170MB/s. It is predicted that a UFS 1.0 card will be able to read a 5GB full HD movie 5 seconds. This would take a standard microSD card more than 50 seconds.

The need for faster transfer speeds is becoming evident with the growing popularity of high-end devices such 3D VR cameras, drones, action cameras and powerful, high-resolution smartphones and tablets. While UFS 1.0 memory cards are not compatible with microSDXC, microSDHC and microSD slots, slots are in development that will be compatible with both UFS 1.0 and microSD formats, so it is unlikely that your microSD cards will suddenly become obsolete in the new generation of smart devices.

Integral will offer new Universal Flash Storage memory cards in 2017. 

USB Flash Drive

Yes, Integral USB Flash Drives and Card Readers are compatible with the latest Microsoft Windows operating systems.

All Integral USB drives and Card Readers support:

  • Windows XP
  • Windows Vista
  • Windows 7
  • Windows 8 / 8.1
  • Windows 10

 

 

Click the Windows Start Icon > Right Click on "Computer" or "My Computer" and select "Manage", and on the right hand pane select "Device Manager". If you see a Yellow Exclamation mark visible on "USB Mass Storage Device" then this indicates that Windows was unable to locate the drivers for the device or has installed the incorrect drivers for the device, causing the device to malfunction 

This issue can be caused by a corruption in the Windows Driver Cache file.

To resolve this issue locate and delete the "INFCACHE.1" file. The location of this file varies depending on your Operating System; please follow the correct procedure below for your installed Operating System. We would advise you to backup your system before proceeding.

Before you begin, right click on the "USB Mass Storage Device" in Device Manager with the Yellow Exclamation mark and click "Uninstall"

Windows XP:

  1. The INFCACHE.1 file can be found in the C:\Windows\inf\ directory.
  2. Simply right click the file and click delete. Once deleted simply restart your PC/Laptop and Windows will rebuild the deleted file.

Windows Vista & 7:

  • The INFCACHE.1 file can be found in the C:\Windows\System32\DriverStor\ directory.
  • Right Click on the "INFCACHE.1" file and select "Properties"
  • Select the "Security" Tab and click the "Edit" button
  • Click "Add" and in the "Enter Object Names to select" box type the word "Administrator" and click "ok".
  • Click "Apply" and click "ok" to the Windows Warning Screen. Once you are back at the "Permissions for INFCACHE.1" window, select "Administrator" and check the "Full -Control" tick box. Click "Apply" and click "ok" to the Windows Warning Screen.
  • Click "ok" to the rest of the screens until you are back to the location of the "INFCACHE.1" file.
  • Right Click on the "INFCACHE.1" file and select "Delete". (Please note that renaming the file to any other name will not work)
  • Restart your PC/Laptop and Windows will rebuild the "INFCACHE.1" file.

Once your PC/Laptop restarts. Plug in your Integral USB Flash Drive and your device should function as normal.

If you still experience problems following this FAQ, please fill in a Support form and we will assist further.

 

The difference is due to way that most storage manufacturers and PC manufacturers define a scale. There are two systems decimal and binary.

Storage devices use a decimal system and PCs use the binary system -this leads to some discrepancy between actual capacity and reported capacity by a PC. The difference can be between about 2% - 9% depending on the capacity of the drive. 

Some additional capacity is taken up by features required by the operating system e.g. FAT tables and the flash drive controller e.g. spare blocks for wear levelling.

 

 

Decimal (Dec) bytes

Binary (Bin) bytes

Ratio (Dec/Bin)

% Diff

Kilobyte

103

                              1,000

210

                                      1,024

0.9765625

2%

Megabyte

106

                      1,000,000

220

                               1,048,576

0.953674316

5%

Gigabyte

109

              1,000,000,000

230

                      1,073,741,824

0.931322575

7%

Terabyte

1012

1,000,000,000,000

240

              1,099,511,627,776

0.909494702

9%

WARNING: Please back up all your data before you format the USB drive.

If your Integral USB has a security or zip software pre-loaded (Integral Splash, Secure 360) then this will be deleted on format, so you may want to make a backup copy onto your computer first.

To format your USB Flash Drive on a Mac:

If you use your USB Flash Drive only on a Mac you will want to reformat it to HFS+ (Mac OS Extended (Journal)) which allows larger file sizes.

 

How do I format my USB Flash Drive on a Mac?


In your Applications folder there is a folder called "Utilities". Here you will find an App called "Disk Utility". Open it and you will see something like this:

How do I format my USB Flash Drive on a Mac?

 

To reformat your USB, select it and then click the Erase Tab.

How do I format my USB Flash Drive on a Mac?

 

Here you can set the USB name and the file format (Mac OS Extended (Journal)).
When you're ready click "Erase" button.

How do I format my USB Flash Drive on a Mac?

 

When Erase is completed, you can safely remove your USB Flash Drive
by dragging the "USB Disk" Icon to the "Trash".

How do I format my USB Flash Drive on a Mac?

 

Memory cards and USB drives are NOT designed for long term storage. You should always backup your data on to another device. The data will normally stay valid for a period of up to 10 years if stored under normal conditions. The data cells inside carry a charge which can dissipate over time. The data can be refreshed; copy all data off card and then format the card or USB drive and then restore all data to extend the data for another 10 years.

 

  • A USB Flash Drive requires little care as it is a sturdy and versatile data storage device. However, we highly recommended you keep the Integral Flash Drive away from very strong magnetic fields, as they can alter/corrupt data stored on the USB.
  • The data will normally stay valid for 10 years. A USB Flash drive cannot be used as a long term storage device. (The data can be copied off and the drive reformatted and the data then copied back on to last another 10 years)
  • We recommend that you always keep a safe backup of any data held on your USB drive. 

 

 

If you experience this it may be the case that the USB Flash Drive file table may have become corrupted or damaged. You will need to format the Flash Drive to re-use it. Firstly, ensure you have no important data stored on the Flash Drive. If you are concerned about the loss of some important data files, contact Integral Tech Support before formatting. If you are unable to format the Integral Flash Drive then fill in the tech support form and we can assist you further.

Your data on the USB Flash Drive can become corrupted or lost and the file system of the Flash Drive may become corrupted as well. It is always recommended to use the "Safely Remove Hardware/USB" option when using your Integral Flash Drive on a PC or Mac.

There can be a various causes to this problem. Follow the steps below to try and solve the issue:

  • Firstly ensure you are plugging the USB Flash Drive directly into the PC or notebook and ensure you have the latest USB drivers for your operating system
  • Try plugging your USB Flash Drive into another USB port on your PC/notebook. You could test the USB on another PC or notebook if available
  • Keep your USB Flash Drive plugged in and perform a full ‘Windows Update' to check for any missing or newer drivers for your computer. To do this, open Internet Explorer and click Tools> Windows Update and follow the onscreen instructions

If you are still experiencing problems, please fill in the tech support form and we will help with your issue.

Before you remove/unplug your USB Flash Drive make sure no data is being transferred to or from the USB.

PCs running Windows XP and above and Macs with OS 9 and above have a "safely remove USB" option that we recommend you follow:

Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7

Locate and left click on the "Safely Remove" icon on the System Tray to display the USB devices connected on your PC/notebook. Select the computer drive letter assigned to your USB and click on the "close/unplug" option, so you can safely remove it.

Apple Mac OS 9 and above

Locate the USB drive icon on the desktop and drag it onto the Apple Trash can (icon).

This is due to the USB Flash Drive being removed from the computer without safely exiting the drive. Your data may be corrupted.

In order to prevent this error, you will need to do make sure that all files that you had opened on your computer (that are stored on your USB) are closed.

PCs running Windows XP and above and Macs with OS 9 and above have a "safely remove USB" option that we recommend you follow:

Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7

Locate and left click on the "Safely Remove" icon on the System Tray to display the USB devices connected on your PC/notebook. Select the computer drive letter assigned to your USB and click on the "close/unplug" option, so you can safely remove it.

Apple Mac OS 9 and above

Locate the USB drive icon on the desktop and drag it onto the Apple Trash can (icon).

 

You may be connected to a USB 1.1 port

  • Your Integral USB Flash drive may be connected to a USB 1.1 port. Ensure that your USB port support USB 2.0 otherwise your Flash Drive will only operate at the slower USB 1.1 speed on this port. 

Reformatting the drive may help

  • Backup all required data from the drive. Using your PC or MAC format the drive. Copy back the required data.

Shut down other applications and/or reboot system

  • Other applications may be causing the system to run slow. Save required data first.

Try another system

  • In case the current system is having performance problems or is infected.

Virus check your  USB drive and system

  • Errant programs may be slowing down your system

Try connecting the drive to a USB port on the PC

  • Using a hub or multiple hubs, may be causing speed and power issues.

 

 

Yes you can, the Integral Flash Drive will function as if it were utilizing a USB 2.0 port.

This means that your PC or laptop has a USB 1.1 port and will not function at the high speed offered by USB 2.0 devices.

This is not a error message and your Integral USB Flash Drive is backwards compatible to work at the slower speeds of USB 1.1. To get the full functionality of the USB 2.0 Flash Drive you will need a PC or laptop with USB 2.0 sockets.

The chart below represents the three tiers of the USB Series:

USB Version / Descriptive Term / Transmission Speed

USB1.0 / Low Speed / 1.5 Mbps
USB1.1 / Full Speed / 12 Mbps
USB2.0 / High Speed / 360 ~ 480 Mbps
USB3.0 / Super Speed / 4.8Gbps

 

 

Unfortunately we do not offer any Integral USBs that support older operating systems such as Windows NT/95/98 or 98SE.

Unfortunately you cannot as the Integral ICE partitions are built into the chipset of the USB. You can only adjust the partitions using the UDPv27X.exe software supplied with the ICE USB Flash Drive.

 

Even though you have moved the images/ data to the trash they will remain in a trash folder within the flash drive until you use the 'empty trash' option whilst the device is connected to the 'Mac'. Once you have emptied the trash the space will be available again on the flash drive.

  • This could be the reason why a USB Flash Drive may show full when inserted into a Mac computer.

This can occur if the file allocation table (FAT) has become corrupt in some way (e.g. loss of power etc).

The drive can be formatted to remove the problem.

Formatting the drive can erase all data. If you have any data on there it is advisable to retrieve it first on your computer. You may need to use file recovery software before formatting.

All Integral USB 2.0 and USB 3.0 Flash Drives are fully backwards-compatible with USB 1.1 ports. However, the Integral USB will transfer data at the slower speed of USB 1.1

The Integral Flexi, 360, Secure360, MicroLite and UltraLite USB Flash Drives only have pin contacts on one side of the USB connector.

When you plug the device into the USB sockets of you PC make sure that the contacts are matched up so that the device is plugged in the correct way. If the Integral USB is not recognised, turn it 180º, so it is the other way around in the socket.

Copying files could be done in many ways. First insert your USB into the PC after it has booted. The USB should be recognised by the PC and assigned a drive letter. Look under "My Computer" to see the letter assigned.

Using a Windows PC, some of the easiest ways to copy data to your Integral USB Flash Drive are:-

A. Select the files that you want to copy.
B. On the toolbar click on Edit =>Copy. This copies the location to the system memory on the PC.
C. Open the drive for the USB Flash Drive. On the toolbar click on Edit => Paste. This copies   the files from the PC memory to the USB Flash Drive.

Or

A. Select the files that you want to copy.
B. Right-click on one of the files (you will see that the rest of the files stay highlighted) and click on Copy. This copies the location to the system memory on the PC.
C. Open the drive for the USB Flash Drive. Right-click in a white empty space on the drive and click on Paste. This copies the files from the system memory to the USB Flash Drive.

Or

A. Select the files that you want to copy.
B. Press Ctrl and C (this is the Windows shortcut for copy) on the keyboard. This copies the location to the system memory on the PC.
C. Open the drive for the USB Flash Drive. Click in a white empty space on the drive and press Ctrl and V (this is the Windows shortcut for paste) on the keyboard. This then copies the files from the PC memory to the USB Flash Drive.

  • Each USB device (such as an Integral USB Flash Drive) that you plug into a PC or Mac draws power from the system. Each device draws the power consumption that it needs to operate. Each device is slightly different in what power it draws.
  1. If you use a USB hub so that you can plug in many USB devices, then this will also be quite a drain on the power from the PC/Mac. The more USB devices you have, the more power you are drawing from the PC/Mac and there will come a cut off point where the PC/Mac cannot output enough power to support all the devices.
  2. We suggest that if you are connecting a USB hub to attach more USB devices to your PC/Mac then you will need to independently power the USB hub (e.g. plug into mains power) so that it will have sufficient power for all USB devices attached to it.
  3. You can remove other power hungry USB devices, so that you can use the USB drive.

 

  • This is not an error message. What Windows is stating is that you have plugged in a USB 2.0 Flash Drive into a computer with only the slower USB 1.1 sockets.
  • Your Integral USB 2.0 Flash Drive will function perfectly as it is backwards compatible with USB 1.1 technology; however it will run at USB 1.1 speeds.
  • To get the full functionality of the USB 2.0 Flash Drive you will need a PC or Mac with USB 2.0 sockets.

Unfortunately the partitions on the Integral Ice Flash Drive cannot be combined.

  • All Integral Flash Drives are fully compatible with Windows Vista and Windows7. However this does not mean that they are compatible with Windows ReadyBoost feature.
  • If the Integral Flash Drive model is compatible with Windows ReadyBoost it will clearly state this feature on our Integral website product page and the retail packaging insert (when applicable).

Secure360

If you have deleted the software or formatted your drive. Please download a copy. The software must be placed in the root directory of your USB drive. 

There are different software versions for Secure 360 V1 and Secure 360 V2.

For Secure 360 V1 you will need your license key. - If you do not have this please request a new one with our support form.  A license key is not required for Secure 360 V2

Please click here to go to the download section.

Click here to see the difference. 

The license key for the Secure 360 V1  USB Flash drive in on a card delivered in the packaging. Please keep this in a safe place for future use. If you cannot locate the card we can send you a replacement key, please complete a support form .   Secure 360 V2 does not require a license key.

Click here to tell the difference.


 

The Secure 360 is a software encrypted device that allows a total of 10 invalid password attempts.

All data is erased once the maximum number or retries have been exceeded.

Data cannot be recovered once it has been erased by the device after failed password retries.

You should always keep a secure backup of your data and think about keeping a secure copy of your password.

We do not have any "back-door" tools to access password protected data.

 

INTEGRAL SECURE 360 V1 ("INTEGRAL" IN silver ) - end of life

Integral Secure 360 V2

 

INTEGRAL SECURE 360 V2 ("INTEGRAL" IN WHITE) 

Integral Secure 360 V1

The Secure 360 v1 software is compatible with the Secure 360 v2 Flash Drive

The Secure 360 v2 software is not compatible with the Secure 360 v1 Flash Drive.

Please click here to tell the difference.

  • The Secure 360 v1 is not compatible with the Mac OS. (This has INTEGRAL is in Silver)
  • The Secure 360 v2  is compatible with the Mac OS. (This has INTEGRAL in White)

Click here to tell the difference

The main differences between the Secure 360 V1 and V2 are listed below

  Secure 360 V2 Secure 360 V1
OS Compatibility Mac and  Windows Windows Only
License Key Not Required Required
 Image 

INTEGRAL - TEXT IN WHITE INTEGRAL - TEXT IN SILVER
Software (Windows) Download V2 Software Download V1 Software
Software (MAC) Download V2 Software Not compatible with MAC
Status Current End of Life

 

Crypto SSD

Unlike some software solutions, there are no on-going licence or usage fees for the Crypto Hardware Encrypted SSD. 

 

No. The Crypto SSD is independent of the BIOS and your data will not be affected if you were to re-flash or clear the CMOS jumper of your motherboard.

Full Disk Encryption (FDE) is a method for encrypting the entire hard drive to protect your data. This includes the operating system and data

FDE works through the controller of the storage device encrypting/decrypting data as it is received back and forth.

There are many encryption algorithms used with FDE devices, the most common of which is 128-bit and 256-bit AES (Advanced Encryption Standard).

The Integral Crypto SSD uses hardware-based FDE and utilises 256-bit AES to protect your data which is FIPS 197 Validated - Certificate No. 1832.

 

Yes. Although it can only be used a secondary drive but encryption cannot be enabled. For encryption to be set the Crypto SSD must be the master drive on your system.

A Dual Profile secured SSD is an ideal solution for administered network environments. IT network staff can setup a Crypto SSD with a Master profile, to access the Crypto SSD should the user forget their password or lock themselves out of the Crypto SSD due to invalid password attempts.

Dual Profiles can also be used for single users, to have two access points should one credential be forgotten.

No. The Crypto SSD encryption is only compatible with Windows XP, Vista & 7 Operating Systems.

On other Operating Systems the Crypto SSD can only be used as a normal SSD without encryption enabled.

No. The Crypto SSD is independent of the BIOS and your data will not be affected with credential changes made in the BIOS.

Crypto USB

Make sure you have ‘AutoPlay' enabled on your computer. You may need to check with your network administrator as they have disabled this feature on your network. Otherwise, follow the instructions for your operating system:

For Windows 2000/XP:
Microsoft has a fix available off their website called AutoPlay Repair Wizard. This can be downloaded from the following link:

http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=C680A7B6-E8FA-45C4-A171-1B389CFACDAD&displaylang=en


For Windows Vista/7:

Click the Start Icon and select "Control Panel"
In Control Panel double-click the "AutoPlay" icon.
Ensure the "Use AutoPlay for all media and devices" check box is checked.

Secondly you can try the following:

Click the Start Icon and type "regedit.exe" and run it.
Locate the following key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\CDRom
Locate the "AutoRun" registry value in the right pane, and check that the value data for this is set as "1", which is enabled. If it is "0" then double click the key and change the value to "1".

On a domain many security policies can be set to maintain security on the network. If you are a Network Administrator ensure that you give the following permissions for users to run the TotalLock.exe application:

Registry Keys:
The TotalLock.exe requires modify permissions on the following keys:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\MountedDevices
HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Disk

Applications:
The TotalLock.exe requires permissions to execute the "mountvol.exe" program found in the following path:
C:\Windows\System32\

If you are still experiencing issues running the TotalLock.exe program for your users please fill out the Tech Support form and we can assist in your issue.

Unfortunately it will not function as it requires the AES USB Flash Drive's secure partition to be unlocked. This can only be done with a password on a compatible operating system.

We recommend you purchase a non-encrypted USB from the Integral range.

You cannot access more than one Integral Crypto drive at a time on the same system. The encryption engine has been designed only to access one Crypto drive at a time. Using more than one Crypto could cause problems.

 

The Integral AES 256-bit encryption range of USB Flash Drives for Apple Macs are fully compatible with Intel-based Mac computers or MacBook laptops running Apple Mac OS X and above.

However, the Integral AES 256-bit encryption range of USB Flash Drives does not support the older PowerPC processors/architecture, which were replaced by Apple in the beginning of 2006.

To identify which processor you have please follow the below support article from Apple:
http://support.apple.com/kb/ht1531

 

The INTEGRAL CRYPTO MAC is only compatible with MACs. It will not work in a Windows PC. 

(There are INTEGRAL CRYPTO USB DRIVES available for Windows PCs only and a DUAL version that will work with PC and MAC. Please click here to see the range)

Yes. All endpoint security software on the market allows the Administrator to create an exception for certain hardware IDs to run. As an Administrator you need to give the Integral AES encrypted USB an exception under the endpoint's hardware ID feature and ensure that the TotalLock.exe program has the privilege to run off the USB Flash Drive. We do not recommend running another form of encryption over the Integral Crypto.

No. The PC version of the Integral AES 256-bit encrypted range of USBs will not work on Apple or Linux OS computers. To meet your USB security needs on Apple computers, we recommend our Crypto Drive Mac Edition. Please click here to see the range

This is because Chinese and Japanese language fonts have not been installed on your computer. To do so follow the below instructions for your Operating System:

Windows 2000

Click Start, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.
Double-click "Regional Settings".
Click the "General" tab, click to select the check box next to the appropriate language group you wish to install, and then click Apply. The system will either prompt for a Windows 2000 CD-ROM or access the system files across the network. Once the language is installed, Windows 2000 will prompt you to restart the computer.

Windows XP

Click Start and select Control Panel.
Double-click "Regional and Language Options"
Click the "Languages" tab and check the box labelled "Install files for East Asian languages", Click Apply.
Windows will prompt you to restart the computer.

When the TotalLock.exe program mounts or un-mounts its secure partition, Windows OS detects it as being removed and removes the icon from the system tray. This is not an issue as you can use the TotalLock.exe program to safely log in and log out of your secure Integral USB using the Padlock buttons. The TotalLock.exe will not lock the secure partition whilst data is being written to it.

This could be because there is no default pdf file reader installed on your PC/Mac. You will need to download and install a PDF reader to view the manual. There are many free pdf readers available on the internet, such as Adobe Reader. Search for "pdf reader" in any search engine and download and install from a trusted source.

No, the Integral AES 256-bit encrypted range is not affected by this scare. In summary, the encrypted USBs that were hacked carried out the password comparison on the computer they were plugged into, which can allow a hacker to observe the password verification process and simulate their own verification. The Integral AES encrypted range of USB Flash Drives does the password comparison on the USB itself, and not on the computer  - and so are not susceptible to this attack method. A report that highlights the strength of Integral AES 256-bit encrypted USB Flash Drives compared to other in the market can be found on the following link.

Your password must be 8 to 16 characters long and must include a minimum of one capital letter, one lower case letter and one number. For example:
"Superman88"
"abacus1979X"

Special characters such as *^+# can also be used but are not mandatory.

Yes, Crypto Drive contains an optional "Personal ID Function". You can store your name, address, phone number and company name on the Drive, whilst your confidential data remains secure at all times. (Do NOT put your password here)

No administrative privileges are required to use the Integral Crypto range of drives, Courier Security Edition and Ag47 Security Edition.

The Crypto USB drive range,  Courier Security Edition and Ag47 Security Edition require no software to be installed on the PC/Mac, they have a zero footprint.

You can setup a clue/hint on the password setup screen and it is highly recommended to do so. For example, if your password was "Superman88" your password hint might be "My favourite comic book and last two digits of special number". Obviously choose something that cannot be guessed by someone.

Once this is setup you can click on the question mark button to display your present clue/hint of your password.

After 6 failed password attempts, all data will be erased and the Integral AES 256bit encrypted Flash Drive will be reset to factory settings.

The USB Flash Drive is then reusable. Due to the nature of the USB it is not possible to recover the passwords and it is highly recommended to set a password hint when setting up the encrypted USB. Think about keeping a secure copy of your password.

We DO NOT have any "back-door" tools to recover data.

You should always have a secure backup of your data.

With the CRYPTO DUAL version a Master and User password can be set. If the User forgets their password they are warned of the fifth attempt to go to the Master who can unlock the drive with the Master Password if set. Please click here to see the range. On the sixth attempt the drive is erased.

 

The Total Lock user interface is pre-loaded in 24 languages that can be selected when the USB is first setup. These include:

  • Bulgarian
  • Chinese
  • Croatian
  • Czech
  • Dutch
  • English
  • Estonian
  • Finish
  • French
  • German
  • Greek
  • Hebrew
  • Italian
  • Japanese
  • Latvian
  • Lithuanian
  • Norwegian
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
  • Romanian
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Swedish
  • Turkish

 

256-bit AES encryption (Advance Encryption Standard) is an International standard which ensures data is encrypted/decrypted following this approved standard. It ensures high security and is adopted by the U.S. government and other intelligence organizations across the world.

Hardware based encryption is where data which is transferred to and from the Integral encrypted USB is automatically encrypted/decrypted through a AES chip built on the Flash Drive. This is much faster and more secure than a software based encryption system, where data is encrypted/decrypted through a program on the PC/Mac.

The Integral Crypto Drive range, Courier Security Edition and Ag47 Security Edition all use hardware-based 256-bit AES encryption to encrypt your data.

FIPS 197 certification looks at the hardware encryption algorithms used to protect the data. FIPS 140-2 is the next, more advanced level of certification. FIPS 140-2 includes a rigorous analysis of the product's physical properties. So, with a FIPS 140-2 certified USB Flash Drive the tamper-proof design of the circuit board has been approved, as well as the data encryption.

FIPS 140-2 logo

No, at this time our range of Encrypted USB Flash Drives are not compatible with Microsoft Surface RT or Surface Pro tablet PCs.

At this time our range of Encrypted USB Flash Drives do not support Windows To Go configuration.

Integral are developing a range of Windows To Go products to be released in the near future.

SSD

The difference is due to way  that most storage manufacturers and PC manufacturers define a scale. There are two systems decimal and binary.

Storage devices use a decimal system and PCs use the binary system -this lead to some discrepancy between actual capacity and reported capacity by a PC. The difference can be between about 2% - 9% depending on the capacity of the drive. 

Some additional capacity is taken up by features required by the operating system e.g. FAT tables and the flash drive controller e.g. spare blocks for wear levelling.

 

 

Decimal (Dec) bytes

Binary (Bin) bytes

Ratio (Dec/Bin)

% Diff

Kilobyte

103

                              1,000

210

                                      1,024

0.9765625

2%

Megabyte

106

                      1,000,000

220

                               1,048,576

0.953674316

5%

Gigabyte

109

              1,000,000,000

230

                      1,073,741,824

0.931322575

7%

Terabyte

1012

1,000,000,000,000

240

              1,099,511,627,776

0.909494702

9%

 

Yes. It will work, however this will reduce the read/write speed of the SSD. To benefit from the full speed it is advised that you use a USB 2.0 socket. If it is possible, use a FireWire or eSATA connection, they will both provide a faster connection then USB 1.1 and USB 2.0 connection formats.

Copying files could be done in many ways. It all depends on which makes you more comfortable.

Using a PC, some of the easiest ways to copy data to your Integral External SSD are:-

A. Select the files that you want to copy.
B. On the toolbar click on Edit => Copy. This copies the data to the system memory on the PC.
C. Open the drive for the Integral External SSD. On the toolbar, click on Edit => Paste. This copies the files from the PC memory to the External SSD.

Or

A. Select the files that you want to copy.
B. Right-click on one of the files (you will see that the rest of the files stay highlighted) and click on Copy. This copies the data to the system memory on the PC.
C. Open the drive for the Integral External SSD Drive. Right-click in a white empty space on the drive and click on Paste. This copies the files from the system memory to the Integral External SSD.


Or

A. Select the files that you want to copy.
B. Press Ctrl and C (this is the Windows shortcut for Copy command) on the keyboard. This copies the data to the system memory on the PC.
C. Open the drive for the Integral External SSD. Click in a white empty space on the drive and press Ctrl and V (this is the Windows shortcut for Paste command) on the keyboard. This then copies the files from the PC memory to the Integral External SSD.

This is not an error message. What Windows is stating is that you have plugged in a USB 2.0 External SSD into a computer with only the slower USB 1.1 sockets.
Your Integral External SSD function perfectly as it is backwards compatible with USB 1.1 technology; however it will run at USB 1.1 speeds.

To get the full functionality of the USB 2.0 External SSD you will need a PC or Mac with USB 2.0 sockets.

Yes, the power consumption of an SSD is a fraction of that of a traditional hard disk drive thanks to the lack of mechanical moving parts and the speed at which data can be accessed (less computing time to get at your data). Also less heat is noise and heat are generated.

 

Typical hard drives will measure anywhere between 24 and 36 dBA depending on what they're doing at the time (i.e. idle or seeking data).
In comparison SSD are effectively silent both when they're idle and under load (reading or writing data).

No, the SSD itself does not require a driver,

However; your SATA controller may require a driver. You can obtain this from the manufacturer. For further information please use Microsoft Knowledgebase article on http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314859

SSDs can still break if you drop it, but as a whole, the lack of moving parts makes that SSD is less prone to damage from shocks.

 

Yes, for most systems with SSDs. If the system disk is an SSD, and the SSD performs adequately on random reads and doesn't have glaring performance issues with random writes or flushes, then Superfetch, boot prefetching, application launch prefetching, ReadyBoost and ReadDrive will all be disabled.

* Windows  SuperFetch SuperFetch enables programs and files to load quickly. SuperFetch monitors which applications you use the most and preloads these into your system memory so they will be ready when you need them ( This is used in Windows Vista and Windows 7 Operating systems)

*The prefetch folder is used for speeding up your system. The way it does this is by doing the following:
• Windows XP is configured to prefetch application and program components so that when you load them to memory; it appears to be very quick.
• When XP does this the first time, it winds up copying portions of the program to the prefetch area of your local disk.
• When XP boots up, XP will prefetch portions of the files you use the most.
• XP loads all associated files, libraries, and pointers necessary to run the program in advance, the preloaded subset makes your system appear quicker.

No. Any standard SATA based SSD will normally work with any SATA based socket.

 

DRAM

The Cisco UCS Manager uses a catalogue system to identify DIMMs. In some situations, for example where the UCS Catalogue in service is not the most recent, or if the Integral components are not recognised, then these messages will be reported for servers with Integral memory installed.

However, there is absolutely no impact on the memory performance and these messages can be safely ignored.

 

The short answer is - No. Using the correct corresponding Integral memory modules will NOT invalidate your warranty.

For more information please click to read our help guide.

CAS Latency (CL) stands for Column Address Strobe. This is the number of clock cycles that pass from when an instruction is given for a particular column and the moment the data is available. In general the lower the CAS latency the better within a given memory technology (DDR, DDR2 or DDR3). Typical values are;

  • DDR -  2.5, 3 Cycles
  • DDR2 - 3, 4, 5, 6 Cycles
  • DDR3 - 7, 9  Cycles

DDR, DIMMS and SODIMM are both memory modules used in computers.

DIMMs are used in desktop computers and servers. A DIMM (133MM) is about twice as long as a SODIMM (67MM). DIMMs can carry features not normally found on SODIMMs such as ECC and REGISTERED.  

SODIMMs are used in notebook computers.

Please see our SODIMM and DIMM guide.

A RANK is a 64bit (or in a case of an ECC module 72bit) data width addressable area of a memory module.

Currently a module can be:
SINGLE RANKED (Rank 1  ) or
DOUBLE RANKED (Rank 2) or
QUAD RANKED (Rank 4 ).

1 RANK = 64bit width (or 72bit with ECC)

Single Rank  = 64bit

Double Rank = 64bit + 64 bit

Quad Rank  =  64bit + 64 bit + 64bit + 64 bit

Ranks are for interleaving to make a system run faster. This is where one device or part of a device is being accessed for data whilst another device or part of a device is getting ready to deliver data.

On some server upgrades there will be a maximum number of ranks a server will address or certain ranked modules may need to be fitted to certain sockets. For example, if a server can address 8 ranks. It may take a variation of 1GB, 2GB, 4GB and 16GB module to achieve this.

For 2GB modules the server may take:
4 x 2GB Rank 2 modules = 8 Ranks with 8GB or

8 X 2GB Rank 1 modules = 8 Ranks with 16GB

or alternatively using 16GB modules,
2 X 16GB Rank 4 modules = 8 Ranks with 32GB

Some planning is required when completing some server upgrades that need ranking, as installing the incorrect amount or type of ranks may lead to problems, or memory may need to be removed and replaced in the future to achieve the maximum density of memory if all sockets are used. Please check your user manual

Below are memory modules currently available from integral memory.

Technology DDR DDR2 DDR3
Density      
256MB RANK 1    
512MB RANK 1 or 2 RANK 1 or 2  
1GB RANK 1 or 2 RANK 1 or 2 RANK 1
2GB RANK 1 RANK 1 or 2 RANK 1 or 2
4GB   RANK 2 or 4 RANK 2 or 4
8GB   RANK 2 RANK 2 or 4
16GB     RANK 4

 

Normally the amount of installed memory will show when you print a status page. Please refer to your device's handbook for instructions on how to do this.

Use our memory Configurator www.integralmemory.com/config or you can consult any user handbooks that may have been supplied with your computer. Or please contact us if your have any problems

DDR3 can be used with the Intel Core i processors. When modules are installed in identical kits of 3, the memory controller can interleave between all 3 thus reducing wait states and increasing performance.

No. DDR, DDR2, DDR3 are different. You must select the correct type to match your system. DDR, DDR2 and DDR3, DIMM and SODIMM modules have notches in different places to prevent insertion into a incompatible system. See our memory guides; DIMM or SODIMM. Below are some basic differences.

 

Speed (MHZ)

Technology

DIMM (Pins)

SODIMM (Pins)

Voltage (V)

DDR

266

PC-2100

184

200

2.5

 

333

PC-2700

184

200

2.5

 

400

PC-3200

184 

200

2.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

DDR2

533

PC2-4200

240

240

1.8

 

667

PC2-5300

240

240

1.8

 

800

PC2-6400

240

240

1.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

DDR3

1066

PC3-8500

240

204

1.5/1.35

 

1333

PC3-10600

240

204

1.5/1.35

Fully Buffered DIMMs are used in servers to increase reliability and to access more memory within a system.

Fully Buffered DIMMs (FB-DIMM) have an AMB (Advanced Memory Buffer) unlike other buffers this has a Serial Interface to the memory controller, this allows greater data width without having to increase the number of pins on the memory controller. This method is only used in DDR2 modules.

FB-DIMMS have 240 pins and are the same length as DDR DIMMS but differ by having notches in different positions so standard DDR2 modules will not fit into a FB-DIMM system.  FB-DIMMs require a FB-DIMM compatible system.

Click here for DIMM Guide with images.

The notches move depending on physical characteristics of the module.
One moves depending on Voltage, the other moves depending if the module is Unbuffered or Buffered. This was introduced so only modules of the correct type can fit in the sockets.

 

A nanosecond (ns) is one billionth of a second (10-9 s).
They are used to show the length of time a memory chip takes to complete a single read/write cycle.

The most common reason is that the machine is designed to work in Dual Channel Mode where the memory controller utilises a pair of modules in turn (interleaving) so that it can reduce the time that it waits whilst the memory is read giving a better performance.

 

POST (Power On Self Test) occurs as the computer is turned on. The BIOS checks each necessary component is responding and reads info for access timings. In the case of memory modules, it will read the SPD (Serial Presence Detect) to check compatibility and access timings. If the wrong type of memory is installed or if the memory has become faulty - there may be a POST error reported, sometimes with beeps.

 

The SPD (Serial Presence Detect) chip on a memory module is an additional chip holding 128Hex bytes of information about the module.

This identifies the module to the BIOS during POST so the Motherboard knows its characteristics and timings that can be used. This was introduced at the same time as SDRAM. 

Single Data Rate (SDR) SDRAM has been superseded by faster Double Data Rate (DDR RAM)
DDR RAM with a Double Data Rate is achieved this by "double pumping" (transferring data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal), hence double the data rate. The other differences include : number of pins, voltage, speed and latency.  

SDRAM will not fit or work in a DDR system and vice-versa.

SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) is the term used for all memory that run with timing cycles that are synchronous to the Motherboard. Prior to SDRAM, memory ran in its own clock cycle which caused waiting time for the CPU.

SDRAM was introduced at the same time as the 133Mhz Pentium Processor.

As silicon technology advances we are able to fit more capacity in a single chip. This means we need less chips to make the same capacity module. Therefore an earlier version may have 8 chips and a newer version may have 4 giving the same capacity.

The phrase Dual-Channel memory is incorrect. The true statement is Memory in Dual-Channel mode. This refers to a machine utilising a pair of modules processing the data more efficiently and reducing system latencies (interleaving). If your machine is Dual-Channel mode compatible then you will see the benefit when using compatible memory in pairs.

 

No. Data is not stored in DRAM memory once the computer is turned off. All data is stored on your hard drive (HDD) or Solid State Drive (SSD).

Yes it can.
Depending on the type of applications you are using, Windows OS will often use Virtual memory if there is not enough Physical memory.

Virtual Memory utilises the Hard drive, which uses approximately 30 times more power than Physical memory. So more memory can lead to less hard drive use, therefore saving power.

There are 2 considerations which affect the amount of memory that can be installed in your computer.

1) The type and maximum amount of memory that can be installed depends on your motherboard. Use our Configurator to find out how much can be installed. (Alternatively please refer to your computer's handbook or manufacturer's website)

2) The version of your  operating system will have a maximum that it can utilise, which may differ from you computers motherboard. You may be able to install more memory on motherboard than your operating system can access. ( Please refer to your operating system manual or see the table below for guidance)

 

Desktop Operating System Version   Max Memory
       
Windows 7      
  32bit Starter   2GB
  32bit All Other   4GB
 

64bit Home Basic

   8GB
  64bit Home Premium   16GB
  64bit Professional   192GB
  64bit Enterprise   192GB
  64bit Ultimate   192GB
 Windows Vista      
  32bit Starter   1GB
  32bit All Other   4GB
  64bit Home Basic   8GB
  64bit Home Premium   16GB
  64bit Professional   192GB
  64bit Enterprise   192GB 
  64bit Ultimate   192GB
Windows XP      
  32bit Starter   512MB
  32bit Home   4GB 
  32bit Professional   4GB
  64bit Professional   128GB
Windows 2000      
  Professional   4GB
       
Mac      
  OS X   8GB
  OS 9   1.5GB
       
Red Hat Linux      
  2.4 Kernel   64GB 

 

Server Operating System Version Max Memory
       
Windows  2008      
  32bit Web Server   4GB
  32bit Standard   4GB
  32bit Datacenter   64GB
  32bit Enterprise   64GB
  64bit Web Server   32GB
  64bit Standard   32GB
  64bit Datacenter   2TB
  64bit Enterprise   2TB
       
Windows 2003      
  32bit Web Server   4GB
  32bit Standard   4GB
  32bit Datacenter   128GB
  32bit Enterprise   64GB
  64bit Standard   32GB
  64bit Datacenter   2TB
  64bit Enterprise   2TB
  64bit Small Business   128GB
       
Windows 2000      
  Server   4GB
  64bit Home Premium    

Jedec is the Joint-Electron-Device-Engineering-Council, an important body that sets the standards in the memory industry.

Areas like the dimensions and functionality of DIMMS are set by JEDEC. This ensures compatibility.

 

An SoDIMM (Small Out-Line Dual In-Line Memory Module) is a smaller type of memory module used in notebook computers. An SODIMM is about half the size of a module (DIMM) used in desktop PCS. Please click here to see our guide

 

 

  • A SIMM (Single In-Line Memory Module) has a single line of connectors. Connectors on each side of the Board are the same. SIMMs are now obsolete.
  • A DIMM (Dual In-Line Memory Module) has 2 lines of connectors. Connectors on each side of the board are not connected. The most popular types of DIMM are DDR, DDR2 and DDR3

 

In general yes, count the total number of memory chips on the module. If the number of data chips can be divided by 3 then the module has ECC. (i.e. ECC will have an odd number of data chips)

Parity is a method of checking for data corruption in memory. One check-bit is added to each byte (8 bits). Errors are detected, but not corrected.

ECC stands for ERROR CORRECTING CODE.

This uses technology on the motherboard to test the accuracy of of outgoing and incoming data by using a checksum. Some errors are automatically corrected, ECC modules are normaly used in high end workstations and servers where data integrity is vital. ECC applies to DDR, DDR2 and DDR3 modules.

ECC modules have a extra memory chip for every eight chips. eg  9 or 18 as opposed to 8 or 16 for a NON-ECC module.

In most cases you can install a ECC module into a NON-ECC system but generally a ECC system will require a ECC module. Please check your PC manual.

 

Physical and Virtual memory are two different things. Virtual memory allows you to use some of your hard drive as though it were RAM. Your hard drive is up to 100 times slower than RAM. When you upgrade your RAM, you can reduce or eliminate the use of virtual memory. Upgrading RAM makes more (physical) memory available to complete tasks previously handled by virtual memory.

ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) is static electricity. ESD occurs when touching an object that conducts static electricity. ESD can damage memory modules.

To protect your memory module from ESD, always store components in antistatic packaging until use. Before handling memory modules we recommend you discharge any static by touching an earthed metal object such as a nearby unpainted radiator or pipe.

ESD wrist straps can be purchased to provide additional ESD protection.

In general yes it will speed up your computer.

Additional memory will not increase the speed of the CPU, however it will reduce the time a CPU spends waiting for information from the hard drive. RAM provides data to a CPU faster than a hard drive, so it will not take as long for programs to execute. If your system is running slow and you have less than the ideal amount of memory, -increasing the memory is an easy way of boosting system performance. 

• Windows users - Right mouse-click on the "My Computer" icon and select "Properties." The total memory is calculated and displayed under the "General" tab in the system properties window.


• Mac users - Select "About This Mac" or "About This Computer" from the Apple menu in the upper left corner of your desktop. This will provide information about your Mac's total memory (built-in memory plus DIMMs or SIMMs installed).

DDR can manipulate data two times per clock cycle. This means the output is twice that of the front side BUS (FSB).

DDR Output FSB Peak Bandwidth
PC1600 200Mhz 100Mhz 1.6GB/sec
PC2100 266Mhz 133Mhz 2.1GB/sec
PC2700 333Mhz 166Mhz 2.7GB/sec
PC3200 400Mhz 200Mhz 3.2GB/sec

DDR2 Output FSB Peak Bandwidth
PC2-3200 400Mhz 200Mhz 3.2GB/sec
PC2-4200 533Mhz 266Mhz 4.2GB/sec
PC2-5300 667Mhz 333Mhz 5.3GB/sec
PC2-6400 800Mhz 400Mhz 6.4GB/sec

DDR2 3 Output FSB Peak Bandwidth
PC3-6400 800Mhz 400Mhz 6.4GB/sec
PC3-8500 1066Mhz 533Mhz 8.5GB/sec
PC3-5300 1333Mhz 666Mhz

10.6GB/sec

Normally the memory module sockets (slots) are marked 0, 1, 2, 3 etc... with socket zero being the lowest. If there are no markings on the motherboard, the socket nearest to the CPU is normally considered socket zero (or the first socket).

 

CL stands for CAS (Column Access Strobe) Latency, which is a term referring to the time that it takes to retrieve data from the module.

  • CL2 and CL3 refer to the amount of clock cycles that it takes before the initial stream of data is sent.
  • CL2 modules wait two clock cycles before sending data.
  • CL3 modules wait three clock cycles before sending data.
  • CL2 modules are faster since they only wait two clock cycles. Some systems may specify either CL2 or CL3 memory.

UNBUFFERED - No buffer the memory is connected directly to the chipset controller,  DDR, DDR2 and DDR3 modules that are used in desktops or notebooks are mostly unbuffered.

BUFFERED - A buffer is used to help the system control large amount of memory. Used to describe older technology modules such as EDO and SDRAM. Used in servers

REGISTERED - Registered modules do not have a buffer but do contain a register that delays all information transferred to the module by one clock cycle, this increases reliability and applies to DDR, DDR2 and DDR3 modules used in many servers.

FULLY BUFFERED - please see FAQ . Applies only to DDR2 modules used in servers

All SDRAM is backward compatible and can run at any bus speed slower than its rating.
A PC133 SDRAM DIMM is capable of running at 133MHz, 100MHz, and 66MHz.
There are some older motherboards that require 66MHz SDRAM and that will not accept PC100 or PC133 SDRAM, but they are very few.

Please use our Memory Configurator to find compatible modules to upgrade your computer.

www.integralmemory.com/config

Yes. In most cases a PC will accept PC133 modules even though it is designed for PC100. However the modules will only work at the PC100 speed.

Most motherboards that do not have an ECC function within the BIOS are still able to use a module with ECC, but the ECC functionality will not work.

Keep in mind, there are some cases where the motherboard will not accept an ECC module, depending on the BIOS version.

There is nothing wrong with the memory or the computer itself. 32-bit versions of Windows OS have a limit of 4GB RAM, so no more than this is recognised by the OS. The total includes for example, any memory located on attached devices (e.g. sound card, video card).

So if your video card has 512MB of memory and you install 4GB of RAM on the motherboard, the amount shown by Windows OS will be 3.5GB.

You can use memory modules of different speeds as long as they are faster than those specified for your computer. It is recommended to use modules of the same speed as those already installed in your system. If you do mix speeds, the modules will all run at the speed of your slowest modules.

For example, for a DDR2 667MHz system you could add 800MHz modules, they will run at the 667 speed.

You cannot mix DDR, DDR2, DDR3 in a system as each technology requires a different type of socket.

Click here to see our product pages for more information 

Speeds available from INTEGRAL MEMORY


Technology Type Speed  Bus Speed
DDR3 PC3-10666 1333MHz 667MHz
DDR3 PC3-8500 1600MHz 800MHz
       
DDR2 PC2-4200 533MHz 266MHz
DDR2 PC2-5400 667MHz 333MHz
DDR2 PC2-6400 800MHz 400MHz
       
DDR PC2100 266Mhz 133MHz
DDR PC2700 333MHz 166MHz
DDR PC3200 400MHz 200MHz

USB 3.0

Yes, you can use a USB 3.0 Flash Drive on USB 2.0 devices now, as they are backwards compatible.

When you upgrade to a USB 3.0 system in the future, such as a new PC with Windows 8 (and certain new Apple Macs) you can then benefit from the faster "SuperSpeed" data transfer rates.

Integral have also found that our USB 3.0 Flash Drives perform faster on USB 2.0 systems then current USB 2.0 Flash Drives.

Yes, a compatible driver is required for USB 3.0 SuperSpeed products such as Flash Drives and Card Readers. This should be included by the manufacturer of the PC or laptop, motherboard or add-in (PCI) card that has the USB 3.0 ports.

The Microsoft USB Mass Storage Class Device driver supplied with Windows 7/Vista/XP/2000/Me for USB 2.0 currently has not been updated to take account of USB 3.0. It should work in most cases but may provide limited speed performance.

Windows 8 operating system and above have native USB 3.0 support.

Yes, Integral USB 3.0 Flash Drives and card readers are backwards compatible with USB 2.0 and USB 1.1 ports. The USB 3.0 Flash Drive or card reader will work at the speed of the port, for example if you use a USB 3.0 Flash Drive in your USB 2.0 laptop, it will work at USB 2.0 speed.

To use USB 3.0 ports you will need a driver from the manufacturer of your PC, motherboard or PCI card. The standard USB Mass Storage Driver from Microsoft (included in Windows XP/Vista and 7 will work - but may not provide optimal performance. Microsoft Windows 8 fully supports USB 3.0 SuperSpeed devices and includes all required drivers for desktop and laptop PCs that feature USB 3.0 ports.

USB Card Reader

Yes, Integral Card Readers and USB Flash Drives and are compatible with Microsoft Windows 8 operating system.

All Integral Card Readers and USB drives support:

  • Windows XP
  • Windows Vista
  • Windows 7
  • Windows 8

 

 

1) You must have a correctly formatted card for your operating system in one of the slots. Please insert a suitable memory card into the correct slot and re-insert USB reader.

If the memory card is not formatted correctly, you will need to format the card either in the PC or in your device. CAUTION - Formatting a card will erase all data.

2) Make sure the memory card is the correct way up and that you are using the correct slot (if using a multi-slot device) - Do NOT use force.

3) You will also need to check that your memory card is compatible with your USB Reader.

A SDHC/MicroSDHC memory card requires a SDHC/MicroSDHC compatible reader. Many older readers (including ones in PCs) may not be SDHC compatible.

A SDXC memory card requires a SDXC compatible reader and a exFAT compatible operating system. Proceed with caution. Please see our guide.

Yes, all current Integral Card Reader, support SDHC memory cards. Older models pre 2007 will not.

USB 2.0 Multi Card Reader
USB 2.0 Mobile Card Reader
USB 2.0 microSD Card Reader
USB 2.0 SD Card & microSD Reader
USB 2.0 Single Slot SD Reader
USB 2.0 Single Slot CF Reader
USB 2.0 Single Slot xD Reader

  • With our Single Slot SD Reader, microSDHC and miniSDHC formats are supported with the use of an SDHC adapter.
  • Compatible adapters are supplied with Integral miniSDHC and certain microSDHC memory cards.
  • Please Note: Older Integral card readers such as the '6in1' and '8in1' do not support SDHC memory cards.

 

CopyStation

Yes. The Integral Copystation is designed to do a bit-for-bit copy of your Source drive. This means ALL data and all partitions will be copied over regardless of file system or hidden/proprietary partitions.

 

 

 

It is not recommended to use ANY adaptors with the Integral CopyStation. Using adapters may damage your disk and/or the CopyStation.

  • Ensure the Destination drive is equal to or larger than the Source drive.  E.g if the drive you want to copy is 500GB (Source) the drive you need to copy to (Destination) needs to be 500GB or greater.
  • Ensure a HDD password is not set on either Source or Destination drive. The CopyStation cannot unlock a password protected drive
  • If the CopyStation still does not copy you will need to check the integrity of your drive using the tools for your operating system. Corrupt, faulty or infected drives may not copy correctly. Please see below

Windows XP: Use Check-Disk (chkdsk.exe). Follow the section "How to run Chkdsk from My Computer or from Windows Explorer" from this link http://support.microsoft.com/kb/315265

Windows Vista/7/8: Please see; http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-vista/check-your-hard-disk-for-errors

Apple Mac OS X (10) and above; Plug the disk into your Apple machine, Click "Go", select "Utilities" and launch "Disk Utilities", Identify and select the disk you wish to check, Under "First Aid" click "Verify Disk" followed by "Repair Disk" once

 

Bluetooth Adaptor

No. The Integral Bluetooth Adaptor will work using the plug and play drivers available on Windows XP/Vista/7 and Apple Mac OS 10.2.6 and above.

The Integral Bluetooth Adaptor is Bluetooth v2.0 compliant and will transfer data up to 3Mbps (Mega bits per second). This means you can transfer 15 ~ 18 large high quality pictures in one minute.

The Integral Bluetooth Adapter will connect and communicate with devices up to 20 meters away. Class 3 devices have a range of up to 1 meter and will not communicate with the Integral Bluetooth Adaptor if it goes beyond this range.

A Class 2 Bluetooth device refers to the specification of the chip used inside the device. Class 2 devices will have a power rating of 2.5mW (milliwatts) and an operating range of approximately 10 to 20 metres.

A Class 1 device will have a range of up to 100 metres and a Class 3 device has a range of 1 metre.

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